Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Plaquenil for chronic hives Plaquenil eye exam protocol report form What are similar drugs to plaquenil Plaquenil for pmr Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine both belong to the quinolone family and share similar clinical indications and side effects, including retinal toxicity. Chloroquine-induced retinal toxicity was first described in 1959 and the retinal toxic effects of hydroxychloroquine were later described in 1967 3, 4. Review of side effects and toxicity of chloroquine / by H. Weniger. View/ Open. Effect of four different types of single-dose treatment with chloroquine and with chloroquine and pyrimethamine on Plasmodium falciparum infections in a semi-immune population in northern Nigeria. Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy damage of the retina caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Toxicity of chloroquine Hydroxychloroquine toxicity - EyeWiki, Review of side effects and toxicity of chloroquine / by H. Plaquenil manufacturer discountPlaquenil toxicity on retinaPlaquenil and plastic surgery Chloroquine phosphate tablets should not be used in these conditions unless the benefit to the patient outweighs the potential risks. Usage in Pregnancy Usage of Chloroquine during pregnancy should be avoided except in the prophylaxis or treatment of malaria when the benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Chloroquine retinopathy - Wikipedia. Chloroquine toxicity -. Chloroquine CQ is used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis, while hydroxychloroquine HCQ, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, is used to treat rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA and Sjogren's syndrome. As we know FQ’s exhibit cumulative toxicity. From the article I referenced above we know that Chloroquine is a chemical cousin to the FQ’s so it is entirely plausible that Chloroquine would contribute to the cumulative toxicity. Both drugs are known to be toxic to the mitochondria 3,4. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite.