Please review the following URL and make sure that it is spelled correctly. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Plaquenil and dental implants Regimens of chloroquine IMPORTANCE Hydroxychloroquine sulfate is widely used for the long-term treatment of autoimmune conditions but can cause irreversible toxic retinopathy. Prior estimations of risk were low but were based largely on short-term users or severe retinal toxicity bull's eye maculopathy. Definitions of retinopathy vary between studies, in part reflecting the increasing sensitivity offered by novel screening modalities. The data available does, however, suggest that HCQ retinopathy remains rare ∼0.1–0.7% overall, but increasing with duration of treatment, and HCQ-associated BEM is very rare ∼0.1% 54, 55. Chloroquine and its derivative, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, which have been useful in treating malaria and in larger doses, collagen-vascular disease, cause a cumulative dose-related pigmentary retinopathy. Mechanism. Inhibition of critical enzymes & interference with the metabolic functions of retinal pigment epithelium RPE & photoreceptors. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. How does hydroxychloroquine cause retinopathy Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy, Glucocorticosteroid Induced Cataracts., Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity Rheumatology. Hydroxychloroquine online perscriptipnWhat is hydroxychloroquine is forChloroquine cancer 2015Can you take plaquenil help hair growth Hydroxychloroquine is an effective and relatively safe drug that can cause retinal toxicity in a minority of patients. Early diagnosis is important to stop treatment and prevent possible further damage. Nevertheless, in many cases, screening tests are performed too early and too often, causing an unjustified burden on patients and. Retinal Physician - Hydroxychloroquine Maculopathy An Update on.. Drug induced maculopathy - EyeWiki. Plaquenil Side Effects on Your Eyes and Vision. Hydroxychloroquine HCQ; Plaquenil is used increasingly in the management of a variety of autoimmune disorders, with well established roles in dermatology and rheumatology and emerging roles in. Side Effects. Drug information provided by IBM Micromedex Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug used to prevent and treat malaria. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil is also a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug DMARD used to treat both acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and discoid lupus erythematosus.